Deploying to Kubernetes with GitLab

๐Ÿ‘‰ Read the article on GitHub for better formatting

This is the next article of a series started with the
previous tutorial on team work using GitLab. The focus of the previous article was on continuous delivery in team work. This article provides practical guidance on deploying from GitLab to Kubernetes.

That is, we'll take the simplest possible yet still contentual React.js application, dockerize it, then deploy it to Kubernetes locally using Docker Desktop. After, we'll deploy it to Google Cloud Platform (GCP) and will follow up with designing a CI/CD pipeline in GitLab to publish our application to Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE).

You will benefit from having a basic understanding of

  • Docker;

  • Kubernetes;

  • Git;

  • Node.js;

  • React;

  • Bash.

We'll do the following.

  • ๐Ÿงฑ Get familiar with our application, discuss its parts.

  • ๐Ÿณ Dockerize our application.

  • โ˜ธ๏ธ Deploy our application to Kubernetes locally on Docker Desktop.

  • โ˜๏ธ Discuss GCP features, and how we need to change the application. Then we once again deploy our application to Kubernetes, but this time to GCP.

  • ๐ŸฆŠ Wrap up our tutorial by creating a pipeline for deploying the application to GCP using GitLab.


From time to time, I will ask you to do something. Such moments are marked with a ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ sign. Please follow the steps as you read the text to get the most out of the tutorial.

โš™๏ธ In order to go through this tutorial, you need these programs to be installed on your computer.

  • Bash Shell

  • Git

  • Node.js

  • Docker Desktop

  • A modern web browser

The commands in the text are in bash format, and some of them use the git command line client. If you are using Windows, the easiest way to get both is to install Git for Windows.

Further, we will assume that the directories with node, git, docker and kubectl binaries are included in PATH.

๐Ÿงฑ Getting familiar with the application

๐Ÿ“ข Introduction to the application will include these steps.

  • Clone the repository and find out what our application consists of.

  • Launch the application in the console.

  • See what the application will be in the future in the deployed state.

What the application consists of

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Clone the repository and go to the application directory

git clone https://github.com/ntaranov/gitlab-kubernetes

cd gitlab-kubernetes

The app has two parts

  • Single Page Application (SPA) - a static React site that receives and modifies data by sending AJAX requests to the API service.

  • API - a web service that provides data about user "registrations" and can add new data. The API writes data that needs to be persisted to a file. We use a file to avoid unnecessary complexity, which would be introduced by working with the database. Additionally, the file allows us highlight persistent volumes.

Why to use such an application for the tutorial? Well, this is the simplest application that meets the following criteria.

  • Uses a modern web framework(React.js) requiring code compilation.

  • Requires passing a parameter(API_URL) at the build time.

  • Contains server-side code.

  • Includes a Front End and API for emulating microservice architecture.

  • Has some persistent state.

  • Contains tests.

I aimed to keep the application as simple as possible, so I deliberately didn't include things like this:

  • authentication and authorization;

  • logs and telemetry;

  • error handling;

  • interaction with database;

  • any meaningful test coverage.

The goal of the tutorial is to provide a minimal example of deploying to Kubernetes and building a pipeline in GitLab. Even with all the simplifications, the tutorial ended up being quite huge.

Inside the newly cloned repository, there will be files and directories:

api // Directory with API files

/data/log // We will save data here

/package.json // API NPM manifest

/server.js // API code, does not require installing other packages

spa // Directory with SPA files

/public/. // React standard static files

/src

/components

/Log.jsx // This component sends API requests

/App.js // Main SPA application component

/App.test.js // Tests, we must have some tests

/config.js // Loads an API URL from an environment variable

/index.js // React application root

/package.json // SPA NPM manifest

/package-lock.json // Worked with these versions of packages

The rest of the files are either standard for create-react-app, or are secondary for our task.

Note that the component in the file ./spa/src/components/Log.jsx gets the value of the environment variable REACT_APP_API_URL using the code from ./spa/src/config.js. If nothing is passed, the code will use a default value good for running on local machine, but if we want to deploy the code elsewhere, we need to set the environment variable to a real value at the build stage, before executing npm run build.

Launching locally

Run API and SPA. The easiest way to do this is by opening two console windows.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ In the first window, run API.

cd api

node server.js

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ In the second window, run SPA.

cd spa

  1. Install npm packages according to package-lock.json.
    npm ci

  2. SPA was created with create-react-app. Therefore, we will launch it using the development server from react-scripts.
    npm run start


๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Open SPA in your browser at

http://localhost:3000/


๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Click the Log Me! button. An AJAX request will be sent to the address http://localhost:3000/log and the User Agent data of the current user will be saved to the file ./data/log. The new data will be displayed on the page below the button.

Why does API running on port 4000 receive a request intended for http://localhost:3000/log? Actually, the create-react-app development server can work as a proxy, and redirects requests to http://localhost:4000/log. The corresponding setting is in ./spa/package.json, notice the last line

"proxy": "http://localhost:4000"

You can run tests for SPA with the command

npm run test

You can prepare a static site for placement on production with the command

npm run build

What do we want to see in the end?

The target architecture can be displayed in this picture.

For simplicity, we store data in a file, but if we move to storing data in a database, our architecture will become highly available.

First of all, we need to package our application as a Docker container image.


๐Ÿณ Let's dockerize our application

A good introduction to Docker basics available on the official site.

๐Ÿ“ข In order to dockerize our application, we first dockerize API and then SPA.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Go to the directory ./api and create a Dockerfile with this code inside.

# use Alpine Linux to create a smaller image

FROM node: 16-alpine

WORKDIR /app

RUN mkdir data

# copy the service code

COPY server.js ./

CMD ["node", "server.js"]

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Make sure Docker Desktop is running. Run local build and tag the image with gitlab-course-api

docker build . -t gitlab-course-api

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Run a container based on the image

docker run --publish 4000:4000 -d gitlab-course-api

This command will output the container hash, which you can use to stop the container later. Check that the service returns a test string when requesting http://localhost:4000/log.

Dockerizing SPA

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Same as with API let's add Dockerfile to ./spa directory.

# build environment

FROM node:14-alpine as builder

WORKDIR /app

ENV PATH /app/node_modules/.bin:$PATH


# copy React source codes into the build image

COPY package.json ./

COPY package-lock.json ./

COPY src ./src

COPY public ./public


# install NPM packages according to package-lock.json

RUN npm ci


# this param needs to be supplied as --build-arg when building the image

ARG API_URL

# building the react application using the param

RUN REACT_APP_API_URL=$API_URL npm run build


# production environment

FROM nginx:stable-alpine

# copy the static site build result from our "heavy" build container

# with NPM packages installed to a slim nginx web server image

COPY --from=builder /app/build /usr/share/nginx/html

EXPOSE 80

CMD ["nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"]

In this case, Dockerfile ended up being more complex. In order to understand why there are such difficulties, let's understand the options we have when it comes to building SPA. We can build:

  • locally;

  • on a dedicated build server;

  • directly in the container.

In the case of a local SPA build, the build environment will differ from developer to developer. Nothing is wrong with the last two options, but we decided to choose the build in a container option to keep things simple. We want production image to be as small as possible and contain a minimum of software for stability and security reasons. Since our React application is just a static website, in production we only need a small image with a web server. However, to "build" our application, we need Node.js and all dependencies installed, which is a whole bunch of packages. To resolve this contradiction, we use a pattern called multi-stage build. We first build our application in a "heavy" container, which is essentially a build environment, and then copy only the resulting static site into a lightweight image, which will "serve" it in the production environment.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Build the SPA image by running the following command in the newly created Dockerfile directory. Note that we are passing the API address as a parameter so that REACT_APP_API_URL variable is declared during the build process.

docker build . --build-arg API_URL=http://localhost:4000 -t gitlab-course-spa

Make sure the build completed successfully.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Use the following command to start a container based on the newly created image.

docker run -it --publish 80:80 gitlab-course-spa

If port 80 is already taken on your computer, you can publish this container port on a different host port, for example, -p 8080:80.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Open the SPA http://localhost page in your browser. You should see the same page as in your local test, however an attempt to call the API should fail with a CORS-related error.

This is because from the point of view of the same origin policy/CORS the protocol, domain name and port must be the same, and if all of them do not match, then the sites are considered different. http://localhost:80 and http://localhost:4000 are different sites. Typically, in order to implement a scenario like ours, the SPA web server "allows" requests to the API by sending headers with the desired site to the user's browser.

๐Ÿ’ก CORS is one of many topics, like setting up SSL/TLS, which we will not include in this tutorial to keep it from growing over 100 pages. At this stage, it was important for us to make sure that both web applications are working. When we deploy our application to Kubernetes, we will be able to receive requests to SPA and API on the same domain and port and route them based on the path.

๐Ÿ’ก For local development, the docker-compose utility is often used. We could use it to implement the SPA and API interactions, as well as their interaction with the outside world through the auxiliary reverse proxy. docker-compose is closely related to the Docker Swarm orchestrator , a Docker product, and uses configuration files with compatible syntax. Since we use Kubernetes as the orchestrator, we will run our application locally in Kubernetes without the extra step.

โ˜ธ๏ธ Deploying to Kubernetes

We've already learned how to run our application in Docker, now let's move on to deploying to Kubernetes.

If you are not already familiar with Kubernetes, then I would recommend these materials.

Kubernetes distribution, which comes with Docker Desktop, is usually sufficient to get started with the basics.

Deploy the application locally to Kubernetes on Docker Desktop

๐Ÿ’ก If you cannot create all the necessary resources due to technical difficulties, you can either start debugging, which will require you delve into the details, or go to the next section where we will deploy our application to Kubernetes too but to Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE). In a different environment, the same technical problems may not arise.

Let's create a directory where we will store Kubernetes resource files. Go to the root of the repository and run the command.

mkdir kubernetes

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's start with SPA. Let's add the file ./kubernetes/spa.yml with the following code.

kind: Deployment

apiVersion: apps/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

namespace: gitlab-course

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

project: gitlab-course

spec:

replicas: 1

selector:

matchLabels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

template:

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

spec:

containers:

- name: gitlab-course-spa

# this is how we named our docker image

image: gitlab-course-spa

imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent

---

kind: Service

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

namespace: gitlab-course

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

project: gitlab-course

spec:

ports:

- protocol: TCP

port: 80

targetPort: 80

selector:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

This file contains two YAML documents separated by ---.

  • The first document defines Deployment for SPA. Deployment in this case contains information about which Pods with which containers and in what number of replicas we want to run. Kubernetes relies on labels to understand which Pods belong to our Deployment. In this case, in the selector field, we indicate that these are Pods with k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa. We are building the image locally, so imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent will use the local copy of the image when deploying locally.

  • The second document specifies Service for SPA. Service defines how our Pods will be available as a network resource.

๐Ÿ’ก We additionally define a project: gitlab-course label for all resources of our project so that we can later receive them all by a label request like this:

kubectl get all --selector=project=gitlab-course -n gitlab-course

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Looks like we have everything to deploy SPA, but there is a caveat. The fact is that we accessed the API at the address specified through the API_URL, and this value is embedded in the SPA image. Let's rebuild the image using the API_URL value, which we will use later.

docker build ./spa --build-arg API_URL=http://spa.localtest.me/log -t gitlab-course-spa

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create SPA resources by running the command

kubectl apply -f kubernetes/spa.yml

Make sure the console confirms that both resources have been created.

๐Ÿ’ก If you want to update the Pod image in Kubernetes, you will need to recreate the Pod. For SPA this can be done, for example, with this command.

kubectl rollout restart deployment gitlab-course-api -n gitlab-course

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's move on to API. Let's add the file ./kubernetes/api.yml with the following code.

kind: Deployment

apiVersion: apps/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

namespace: gitlab-course

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

replicas: 1

selector:

matchLabels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

template:

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

spec:

containers:

- name: gitlab-course-api

# this is how we named our docker image

image: gitlab-course-api

imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent

volumeMounts:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

mountPath: /app/data

volumes:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

persistentVolumeClaim:

claimName: gitlab-course-pv-claim

---

kind: Service

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

namespace: gitlab-course

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

ports:

- protocol: TCP

port: 80

targetPort: 4000

selector:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

Everything is similar to SPA except for this part:

...

volumeMounts:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

mountPath: /app/data

volumes:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

persistentVolumeClaim:

claimName: gitlab-course-pv-claim

...

The part is related to the fact that we use Persistent Volumes to allow the data stored by the API to live longer than the Pod.

  • In volumes we declare a new volume and indicate that resources for it should be obtained using the Persistent Volume Claim gitlab-course-pv-claim.

  • In volumeMounts we mount this volume to /app/data directory where our application stores data.

However, for this to work, we need the Persistent Volume Claim gitlab-course-pv-claim to have been defined ahead of the time.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create a new file ./kubernetes/volume.yml with this code.

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1

kind: StorageClass

metadata:

name: local-storage

provisioner: kubernetes.io/no-provisioner

reclaimPolicy: Delete

volumeBindingMode: Immediate

---

apiVersion: v1

kind: PersistentVolume

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-pv

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

capacity:

storage: 100Mi

volumeMode: Filesystem

accessModes:

- ReadWriteOnce

persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Delete

storageClassName: local-storage

local:

# the path is specific for Linux subsistem for Windows and maps to

# C:\volumes\data\gitlab-course

# this directory needs to be created before the creation of the volume

path: "/run/desktop/mnt/host/c/volumes/data/gitlab-course"

nodeAffinity:

required:

nodeSelectorTerms:

- matchExpressions:

- key: kubernetes.io/os

operator: In

values:

- linux

---

kind: PersistentVolumeClaim

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-pv-claim

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

accessModes:

- ReadWriteOnce

resources:

requests:

storage: 100Mi

storageClassName: local-storage

volumeName: gitlab-course-pv


This was perhaps the most boring moment of the tutorial; it's only getting better from now on. So, let's figure out what is here and why. Let's start with a PersistentVolumeClaim named gitlab-course-pv-claim. It defines a request for resources and we refer it in the SPA definition. Kubernetes is an extensible system, and the needs, in our case 100MiB, can be met in different ways, for example, by providing a cloud resource. Since we are publishing our application locally, we simply create a PersistentVolume named gitlab-course-pv just above. To create a PersistentVolume it is required, in turn, to specify a storage class that contains information about what kind of disk we need. Therefore, even above, we create a storage class with storageClassName: local-storage, which implies that the disk was created manually.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Apply the above configuration.

kubectl apply -f kubernetes/volume.yml

Make sure the message in the console confirms that all three objects have been created.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Now we have everything to create API objects.

kubectl apply -f kubernetes/api.yml

Our containers are already running in Kubernetes, but the services that we created are available only from the local software-defined network inside Kubernetes. One of the ways to provide access to our application from the outside is to create an object called Ingress. Ingress defines the rules by which our services will be available via HTTP.

๐Ÿ’ก Make sure your version of Kubernetes has an ingress controller installed, for example community-supported ingress-nginx. If you cannot find the corresponding Deployment, you may need to install it. At the time of writing, the command for Docker Desktop looked like this

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/controller-v1.0.4/deploy/static/provider/cloud/deploy.yaml

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's create a file kubernetes/ingress.yml with the following code.

kind: Ingress

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-ingress

namespace: gitlab-course

labels:

project: gitlab-course

spec:

rules:

- host: spa.localtest.me

http:

paths:

- path: /log

pathType: Prefix

backend:

service:

name: gitlab-course-api

port:

number: 80

defaultBackend:

service:

name: gitlab-course-spa

port:

number: 80

In our case, as a result of creating the Ingress object, a reverse-proxy based on nginx will be brought up, which will transmit requests to the services of our application and responses from them back to the client. The gist of this configuration is that we accept requests on port 80 and redirect all requests to SPA except the requests to http://spa.localtest.me/log, which we route to API. We use localtest.me here - the domain name for which 127.0.0.1 IP address is returned for all the subdomains.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create the Ingress resource.

kubectl apply -f kubernetes/ingress.yml

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Go to http://spa.localtest.me in your browser. It is important to use this specific domain because for another request to the API at the address http://spa.localtest.me/log will be blocked by CORS.

๐Ÿ‘ Congratulations, you've deployed your application to Kubernetes, albeit locally for now. As we will see later, using a different provider will not be much more difficult.

โ˜๏ธ Deploy our application to GCP

Creating a project in GitLab

We will be using GitLab.com as our GitLab installation to avoid the hassle of installing and configuring the self-hosted version.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ If you don't have a GitLab.com account yet, go to https://gitlab.com and create one.

GitLab allows us to create a project by simply pushing to a remote repository.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's use the following command for this:

GITLAB_USER_NAME=<user name>

git push https://gitlab.com/<user name>/gitlab-kubernetes

<user name> here is your username on GitLab.com. Further we will consider the variable GITLAB_USER_NAME set to the same value in other scripts.

This command will create a private project named gitlab-kubernetes inside your GitLab.com account.

GitLab provides access to "deployment variables", but to receive their values our branch must be "protected". We will return to these variables later, but making sure that our master branch is protected is the most convenient for us right now.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ In the browser, go to your project page in GitLab https://gitlab.com/<user name>/gitlab-kubernetes;

  • Select Settings -> Repository from the menu on the left;

  • Expand the Protected branches submenu;

  • Make sure the master branch is listed and at least Maintainers are specified in the Allowed to push column (i.e. the value is not No one).

  • If the master branch is not listed, add it (Protect) using the above settings.


Creating a Kubernetes cluster in GKE via GitLab

๐Ÿ’ก To complete the tasks of this part, you may need to create a "trial" account. You can get $300 USD to "play" with the resources during the trial period and additional $200 USD if you use the GitLab's offer.

๐Ÿ’ก GitLab now also supports integration with Amazon EKS out of the box.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create a project called gitlab-kubernetes in Google Cloud Platform. If you haven't done this before, then see here how.

๐Ÿ’ก In fact, you can first create a cluster in Kubernetes, and then specify the key and token of the desired service account in GitLab, but this path is a bit longer and more likely to provoke errors, so we "cheat" and create a cluster in Kubernetes directly from GitLab, this way all the details will be filled in automatically.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create a Kubernetes cluster named gitlab-cluster-auto. The UI of GitLab.com is constantly changing, so the actions may be slightly different, follow the spirit, not the letter. At the moment, the actions are as follows:

  • go to gitlab-kubernetes project;

  • in the left menu select Infrastructure -> Kubernetes clusters;

  • click the Integrate with a cluster certificate button in the center of the page;

  • on the right, select the Create new cluster tab -> Google GKE.

Next, fill the form.

  • Specify gitlab-cluster-auto as the cluster name.

  • Make sure the gitlab-kubernetes GCP project created for the course is selected.

  • Set Number of nodes to 1 - it is cheaper and API is not designed for more than one replica.

  • You can choose a smaller Machine type, for example n1-standard-1.

  • Leave the GitLab-managed cluster option checked.

  • Make sure Namespace per environment is set - we won't be using many environments here, but it's useful to enable this option because that's closer to "real life".

Click the Create Kubernetes cluster button. Wait for the process to complete, make sure the Kubernetes cluster was successfully created message is displayed.

๐Ÿ’ก At this stage, you may need to log into your GCP account and give GitLab the necessary permissions.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Make sure there are no errors on the Kubernetes clusters page in gitlab-cluster-auto cluster list item.

๐Ÿ‘ Now we have a Kubernetes cluster that we can use in the future.


Deploying to Kubernetes on GCP "manually"

๐Ÿ“ข When working with a Kubernetes cluster in GCP, we will execute console commands in the Google Cloud Console Shell. This will allow to

  • simplify the authorization when accessing the cluster;

  • keep local kubectl settings the same.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Open the Google Cloud Shell page in a browser.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Google Cloud Shell has kubectl installed, but we need to" connect "it to the cluster. To do this, we need to specify the PROJECT_ID. Let's display a list of projects in our environment.

gcloud projects list

For example, for me PROJECT_ID was gitlab-kubernetes-326101. Assign this value to the PROJECT_ID variable

PROJECT_ID=<you value>

Now we can save cluster connection data for kubectl.

gcloud container clusters get-credentials gitlab-cluster-auto --zone us-central1-a --project $PROJECT_ID

Make sure the output was

Fetching cluster endpoint and auth data.

kubeconfig entry generated for gitlab-cluster-auto.

Create gitlab-course namespace

kubectl create namespace gitlab-course

Let's set the variable GITLAB_USER_NAME in Google Cloud Shell too for convenience

GITLAB_USER_NAME=<user name>

๐Ÿ“ข Let's start deploying our application to GKE.

  1. Create a Persistent Volume Claim for the API.

  2. Deploy API.

    • Upload API images to the GitLab repository.

    • Create API Deployment and Service.

  3. Deploy Ingress, it will be assigned an external IP address. The IP address is needed to specify API address when creating the SPA image.

    • Testing API.

  4. Deploy SPA.

    • Re-create the SPA image using the assigned IP address and upload the SPA image to the GitLab repository.

    • Finally, let's create a Deployment and a Service for SPA.

    • Add a rule for SPA to Ingress, update Ingress. Test SPA and the entire application.

Creating Persistent Volume Claim for API

๐Ÿ’ก When working with cloud providers, you usually only need to create a Persistent Volume Claim, and the volume itself and the cloud resource that implements it are created automatically by the provider's tools.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Remove StorageClass and PersistentVolume in kubernetes/volume.yml. Remove storageClassName: local-storage line in the PersistentVolumeClaim definition, this will result in standard disk being used in GKE. Also, replace the value of namespace with the token{{NAMESPACE}}.

kind: PersistentVolumeClaim

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-pv-claim

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

accessModes:

- ReadWriteOnce

resources:

requests:

storage: 100Mi

๐Ÿ’ก The idea is that namespace may differ depending on how and where we deploy the application. For this reason, we will replace {{TOKENS}} with actual values โ€‹โ€‹before applying the configuration files. We could use something like Helm to work with templates, but we don't want to complicate the tutorial, do we?

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Upload this file to Google Cloud Shell. The Upload button is located on the command line menu in the Cloud Shell interface. At the time of this writing, the option was in the "โ‹ฎ" submenu. As we tokenized the file, we need to replace the token with a real value first. For example, so

sed "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g" volume.yml > volume-replaced.yml

Then apply the resulting configuration

kubectl apply -f volume-replaced.yml

Or you perform the substitution and apply the configuration in one line.

sed "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g" volume.yml | kubectl apply -f -

Check with the following command that the Persistent Volume Claim has been created.

kubectl get persistentvolumeclaim --all-namespaces

API Deployment

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Edit kubernetes/api.yml. Replace namespace and Deployment in Service this way.

...

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

...

Let's do the same with image, we will pass in the exact version of the Docker image to let Kubernetes know that the Pod needs to be updated.

...

image: {{API_IMAGE}}

...

We can now substitute a different name for the image, but our local container image will not be accessed by GKE. We need to host our image in a service available to Kubernetes. Upload the local image to the GitLab Repository.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ From the local console, type

docker login registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes

and enter you GitLab login data.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Assign the tag with the prefix of our repository in GitLab to the image.

docker tag gitlab-course-api registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/api

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Now we can upload our image to the remote repository. Execute the command

docker push registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/api

Wait for the upload to finish and make sure it was successful.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Type in Google Cloud Shell

docker login registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ There is a nuance that in order to download an image from our private repository on GitLab.com, you need to provide a secret. To do this, we can upload the secret that was created in ~/.docker/config.json when we ran the docker login command. Run this command in Google Cloud Shell.

kubectl create secret generic regcred \

--from-file=.dockerconfigjson=$HOME/.docker/config.json \

--type=kubernetes.io/dockerconfigjson \

--namespace=gitlab-course

The last piece of the image configuration puzzle is to give our repository access to the secret information in kubernetes/api.yml. Place this code at the end of the Deployment definition, right after volumes:, on the same level as containers:

...

imagePullSecrets:

- name: regcred

...

On Google Cloud, we will use the default Ingress to route traffic from external IP to Pod in Kubernetes. Under the hood, Ingress implementation uses an External HTTP/S Load Balancer and requires all services to be available as NodePort. Let's change the service type in kubernetes / api.yml.

...

spec:

type: NodePort

...

As a result, inside kubernetes/api.yml you should get the following code:

kind: Deployment

apiVersion: apps/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

replicas: 1

selector:

matchLabels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

template:

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

spec:

containers:

- name: gitlab-course-api

image: {{API_IMAGE}}

imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent

volumeMounts:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

mountPath: /app/data

volumes:

- name: gitlab-course-pv

persistentVolumeClaim:

claimName: gitlab-course-pv-claim

imagePullSecrets:

- name: regcred

---

kind: Service

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-api

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

project: gitlab-course

spec:

type: NodePort

ports:

- protocol: TCP

port: 80

targetPort: 4000

selector:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-api

Fine! Now our image is available for Kubernetes and we can create a Pod!

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Upload the file kubernetes/api.yml to Google Cloud Console and run the command.

sed -e 's/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g' -e "s~{{API_IMAGE}}~registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/api~g" api.yml | kubectl apply -f -

Make sure the resources were created successfully.

๐Ÿ’ก Note that we use ~ as a separator in the second sed expression because the image name already contains/.

๐Ÿ’ก If you want to update the Pod image in Kubernetes, you will need to recreate the Pod. For API this can be done, for example, with this command.

kubectl rollout restart deployment gitlab-course-api -n gitlab-course

In our case, you will need to execute kubectl apply again, specifying sha256 explicitly adding the construction @sha256:<hash> to the image name.


Deploying Ingress

๐Ÿ’ก We will use nip.io to avoid having to register a domain. The problem here is that in order to specify the correct host name for the API in the Ingress definition, we need to know the external IP address of the Ingress. However, the IP address will be assigned to Ingress only after we create Ingress. The solution is to create the Ingress and then modify it.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's create an Ingress. Modify the file kubernetes/ingress.yml.

kind: Ingress

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-ingress

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

project: gitlab-course

spec:

defaultBackend:

service:

name: gitlab-course-api

port:

number: 80

๐Ÿ’ก To create an Ingress, we need to specify either at least one rule or a default backend. We are temporarily specifying the API service because it has already been created.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Upload this file to Google Cloud Shell.

sed "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g" ingress.yml | kubectl apply -f -

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's wait till the external IP is assigned to our Ingress. It is convenient to do this running this command

kubectl get ingress --all-namespaces --watch

Stop executing the command with Ctrl + C when the external IP is assigned. Assign it to the variable EXTERNAL_IP

EXTERNAL_IP=<external IP obtained by the previous command>

For simplicity, I will also call the address value itself EXTERNAL_IP.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Go to http://EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io in your browser. For example, while testing this course, the address for me looked like http://34.102.175.33.nip.io/log

Make sure you receive a response with the code 200 OK.

So, we are almost finished deploying our application in GKE, it remains to deploy SPA and update Ingress.

Deploying SPA

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Remember the nuance with SPA? The API address is embedded inside the image, specified via the API_URL. The good news is that we have already created the Ingress and therefore we know the address that we can use as the API_URL. Let's rebuild the SPA image using this address. Run this command in your local console.

docker build ./spa --build-arg API_URL="http://$EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io" -t registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/spa

docker push registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/spa

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Edit kubernetes/spa.yml. These will be the same edits as in kubernetes/api.yml before.

Replace namespace in the Deployment and in the Service this way.

...

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

...

Let's do the same with image.

...

image: {{SPA_IMAGE}}

...

Change the service type in kubernetes/spa.yml to NodePort.

...

spec:

type: NodePort

...

Place the secret for accessing the GitLab repository at the end of the Deployment definition, on the same indentation level as containers:

...

imagePullSecrets:

- name: regcred

...

As a result, it should look like this:

kind: Deployment

apiVersion: apps/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

project: gitlab-course

spec:

replicas: 1

selector:

matchLabels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

template:

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

spec:

containers:

- name: gitlab-course-spa

image: {{SPA_IMAGE}}

imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent

imagePullSecrets:

- name: regcred

---

kind: Service

apiVersion: v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-spa

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

project: gitlab-course

spec:

type: NodePort

ports:

- protocol: TCP

port: 80

targetPort: 80

selector:

k8s-app: gitlab-course-spa

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Download kubernetes/spa.yml into the ~/gitlab-course Cloud Shell directory and run the command.

sed -e 's/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g' -e "s~{{SPA_IMAGE}}~registry.gitlab.com/$GITLAB_USER_NAME/gitlab-kubernetes/spa~g" spa.yml | kubectl apply -f -

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ It remains to update Ingress - and we're done. Let's do it now. Specify SPA as the default service and route requests to the API if the path is /log. Note that we are using Ingress by default in GKE, and therefore we are specifying pathType: ImplementationSpecific.

kind: Ingress

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1

metadata:

name: gitlab-course-ingress

namespace: {{NAMESPACE}}

labels:

project: gitlab-course

spec:

rules:

- host: {{EXTERNAL_IP}}.nip.io

http:

paths:

- path: /log

pathType: ImplementationSpecific

backend:

service:

name: gitlab-course-api

port:

number: 80

defaultBackend:

service:

name: gitlab-course-spa

port:

number: 80

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Delete ingress.yml file in the Google Cloud Shell and then re-upload kubernetes/ingress.yml file to the Google Cloud Shell and apply the changes with the command.

sed -e 's/{{NAMESPACE}}/gitlab-course/g' -e "s/{{EXTERNAL_IP}}/$EXTERNAL_IP/g" ingress.yml | kubectl apply -f -

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Go to the EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io page in your browser and make sure that our application works as expected. You may need to wait for a while as the Ingress configuration is getting updated in GCP.

๐Ÿ‘ Congratulations, you have deployed your application to Kubernetes on the Google Cloud Platform! It's left only to implement the deployment of the application in GitLab.


๐ŸฆŠ Deploying to Kubernetes with GitLab

The difficult part is over, but we still need to develop a pipeline in GitLab. So, let's begin.

๐Ÿ’ก We will not show here how to publish an application using AutoDevOps because AutoDevOps and everything related to it changes very often, and also because it is not really suitable for anything more complex than Hello World!. However, I recommend going through the official tutorial to get an impression of the built-in features of GitLab to use them when needed in the future.

๐Ÿ’ก I don't think it's realistic to provide a one-size-fits-all solution, as the more "production" the pipeline is, the more complex it is, and the more it depends on the platform to which the deployment is done. For this reason, we will not strive to create a highly optimized pipeline, but instead focus on creating a solution that is easy to understand and that demonstrates different capabilities.

๐Ÿ“ข The plan is

  • Delete the resources created in the previous step

  • Set environment variables

  • Implement building and testing

  • Implement the deployment in GKE

Let's delete the resources created in the previous step

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ We will delete resources "from top to bottom". Run these commands in Google Cloud Shell.

kubectl delete ingress gitlab-course-ingress -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete service gitlab-course-api -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete service gitlab-course-spa -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete deployment gitlab-course-api -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete deployment gitlab-course-spa -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete pvc gitlab-course-pv-claim -n gitlab-course

kubectl delete secret regcred -n gitlab-course

Setting environment variables

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ So, our pipeline will use EXTERNAL_IP variable, which will contain the external IP of our Ingress. Let's set its value inside GitLab.

  • Open our GitLab project gitlab-kubernetes in the browser.

  • From the left menu in the Settings submenu, select CI/CD.

  • Expand the Variables submenu.

  • Press the Add Variable button. Enter EXTERNAL_IP in the Key field, and the value you received in the previous part in the Value field. In fact, we deleted the Ingress and will recreate it and there is no guarantee that GCP will assign the same IP to the Ingress we'll create soon, but it is highly likely, and if it does not, we will easily fix it.

  • Click the Add Variable button at the bottom of the form.

Done!

If you are debugging your pipeline, you might also want to add CI_DEBUG_TRACE variable with the value of true. If you do this, the values โ€‹โ€‹of all variables and parameters will be output in the job log.

๐Ÿ’ก It's a security risk to have CI_DEBUG_TRACE always on.

Implementing building and testing

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Create file .gitlab-ci.yml in the root of the project. Add this code

image: docker:stable

services:

# ะผั‹ ะฑัƒะดะตะผ ัะพะฑะธั€ะฐั‚ัŒ ะฝะฐัˆะธ ะพะฑั€ะฐะทั‹ ะฒั‹ะฟะพะปะฝัั docker daemon ะฒะฝัƒั‚ั€ะธ ะบะพะฝั‚ะตะนะฝะตั€ะฐ

- docker:dind

variables:

DOCKER_DRIVER: overlay2

SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa

SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa-build

API_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/api

DOCKER_DRIVER: overlay2 - According to documentation, overlay2 is more efficient than vfs. This is actually the default for shared runners, but we left that line in case you want to use self-hosted runners.

SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa

SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa-build

API_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/api

We have introduced these variables for our convenience. These are the names of our images inside the GitLab registry. Why do we only have one variable for the API, but two for SPA?

For API we just wrap server.js in a small Node.js image.

For SPA, as you remember, we did a two-stage build.

  • On the one hand, we want the image in production to be as small as possible.

  • On the other hand, in our CD pipeline we will run autotests, and we need NPM modules installed for this, i.e. for this we need a "larger" image.

The solution is to split our two-stage build into a build of 2 images - "larger" and "smaller".

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ By the way, let's do it right now. Create file Build.Dockerfile and copy the first piece of code from Dockerfile into it

# build environment

FROM node:14-alpine as builder

WORKDIR /app

ENV PATH /app/node_modules/.bin:$PATH


# copy React source codes into the build image

COPY package.json ./

COPY package-lock.json ./

COPY src ./src

COPY public ./public


# install NPM packages according to package-lock.json

RUN npm ci


# this param needs to be supplied as --build-arg when building the image

ARG API_URL

# building the react application using the param

RUN REACT_APP_API_URL=$API_URL npm run build

We will shorten the original Dockerfile. Let's delete the above code from the file and parameterize the name of the image from which we will eventually copy the files.

ARG build

# build environment

FROM $build as builder


# production environment

FROM nginx:stable-alpine

# copy the static site build result from our "heavy" build container

# with NPM packages installed to a slim nginx web server image

COPY --from=builder /app/build /usr/share/nginx/html

EXPOSE 80

CMD ["nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"]


As you see, simple and logical.

Add one more, third Test.Dockerfile file, in which we will run tests
# test environment

FROM spa-build:latest

RUN npm run test

Yes, two lines only.

๐Ÿ’ก Alternatively, we could re-use the "heavy" build image passing the run command via the command line.

Now everything is ready to implement all the stages associated with building and testing. ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Add this fairly large chunk of code to .gitlab-ci.yml.

stages:

- build

- test

- package


before_script:

- docker login -u gitlab-ci-token -p $CI_JOB_TOKEN $CI_REGISTRY


build_spa_builder:

stage: build

script:

- docker build -f ./spa/Build.Dockerfile --build-arg API_URL="http://$EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io" -t $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./spa

- docker tag $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest


test_spa:

stage: test

script:

- docker run $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest sh -c "CI=true npm test"

dependencies:

- build_spa_builder


build_spa:

stage: package

script:

- docker build -f ./spa/Dockerfile --build-arg build=$SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest -t $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./spa

- docker tag $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

dependencies:

- build_spa_builder


build_api:

stage: package

script:

- docker build -f ./api/Dockerfile -t $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./api

- docker tag $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

This code defines three stages build, test and package. These stages, in turn, contain jobs. Let's discuss which job does what.

  • build

    • build_spa_builder - create the "build" image

  • test

    • test_spa - test SPA code

  • package

    • build_spa - copy SPA files to the slim production image

    • build_api - copy API files

The commands specified in before_script will be executed before each job. We use docker login to authorize the runner to access the GitLab Docker Registry using data available through special GitLab environment variables.

before_script:

- docker login -u gitlab-ci-token -p $CI_JOB_TOKEN $CI_REGISTRY

We are using some variables here that start with CI_, these are the so-called GitLab CI/CD variables. Their values are provided to us by the platform.

Most jobs above are structured similarly except for test_spa which is simpler because of not uploading the image to the repository. If you want to make sure that the previous job completes before starting the next job, you can specify the previous one in the dependencies. Let's analyze the commands using build_spa_builder as an example.

script:

- docker build -f ./spa/Build.Dockerfile --build-arg API_URL="http://$EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io" -t $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./spa

- docker tag $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest

Here we create an image, then tag it with a label consisting of the value of our variable and the short hash of the current commit in the GitLab repository CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA. We then upload the image to the GitLab Docker repository. When creating the SPA image, we also use the EXTERNAL_IP variable that we set earlier.

There are two purposes of tagging the image with the hash of the commit.

  • First, we will understand from which version of the code the image is built.

  • Secondly, for images that will be referenced inside YAML files, Kubernetes will be able to understand that the image has changed and that the Pod needs to be updated.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ So, the moment of magic when we first run our pipeline has come. Update the code in the GitLab repository with the following command in the local console. Add all the code you haven't added to the index yet, commit and push.

git add -A

git commit -m "Commit all the code remaining to build images with GitLab"

git push

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Open the CI/CD -> Pipelines page in GitLab in a browser and make sure the build and testing has started. Go to our specific build's page and wait for it to complete successfully. During this, it won't hurt if you open the pages of different jobs and watch the updated output in the console.

Good! At this moment, we are already building all the images we need straight in GitLab.

Implementing Deployment in GKE

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Let's take the last step - implement the deployment to Kubernetes on GCP using GitLab. So add the extra stage to .gitlab-ci.yml.

stages:

- build

- test

- package

- deploy

Then add the code after the build steps.

deploy_spa:

stage: deploy

image: "registry.gitlab.com/gitlab-org/cluster-integration/auto-deploy-image"

# we need to set the environment here, otherwise GitLab will not pass the values of variables starting with KUBE_

environment: production

before_script:

- |

kubectl create secret -n "$KUBE_NAMESPACE" \

docker-registry regcred \

--docker-server="$CI_REGISTRY" \

--docker-username="${CI_DEPLOY_USER:-$CI_REGISTRY_USER}" \

--docker-password="${CI_DEPLOY_PASSWORD:-$CI_REGISTRY_PASSWORD}" \

--docker-email="$GITLAB_USER_EMAIL" \

-o yaml --dry-run | kubectl replace -n "$KUBE_NAMESPACE" --force -f -

script:

# creating the volume

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" kubernetes/volume.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# deploying API

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s~{{API_IMAGE}}~$API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA~g" kubernetes/api.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# deploying SPA

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s~{{SPA_IMAGE}}~$SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA~g" kubernetes/spa.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# updating ingress

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s/{{EXTERNAL_IP}}/$EXTERNAL_IP/g" kubernetes/ingress.yml | kubectl apply -f -

Noteworthy here is the fact that instead of docker: stable we are using a different image. Generally, any image with kubectl would work for us, so for simplicity we use registry.gitlab.com/gitlab-org/cluster-integration/auto-deploy-image image which GitLab uses to deploy to Kubernetes in AutoDevOps mode.

We also take advantage of the fact that our cluster is integrated with GitLab. For this reason, we can rely on environment variables that start with KUBE_ to be passed automatically.

We override the before_scripts.

  • We do not want to try to log into docker before executing our job commands.

  • We want to give our Pods the ability to download images from the GitLab Docker Registry.

Here is the complete code for .gitlab-ci.yml that should have resulted from the edits.

image: docker:stable

services:

- docker:dind

variables:

DOCKER_DRIVER: overlay2

SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa

SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/spa-build

API_DOCKER_IMAGE: $CI_REGISTRY_IMAGE/api


stages:

- build

- test

- package

- deploy


before_script:

- docker login -u gitlab-ci-token -p $CI_JOB_TOKEN $CI_REGISTRY


build_spa_builder:

stage: build

script:

- docker build -f ./spa/Build.Dockerfile --build-arg API_URL="http://$EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io" -t $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./spa

- docker tag $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest


test_spa:

stage: test

script:

- docker run $SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest sh -c "CI=true npm test"

dependencies:

- build_spa_builder


build_spa:

stage: package

script:

- docker build -f ./spa/Dockerfile --build-arg build=$SPA_DOCKER_BUILDER_IMAGE:latest -t $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./spa

- docker tag $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

dependencies:

- build_spa_builder


build_api:

stage: package

script:

- docker build -f ./api/Dockerfile -t $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA ./api

- docker tag $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest

- docker push $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA

- docker push $API_DOCKER_IMAGE:latest


deploy_spa:

stage: deploy

image: "registry.gitlab.com/gitlab-org/cluster-integration/auto-deploy-image"

# we need to set the environment here, otherwise GitLab will not pass the values of variables starting with KUBE_

environment: production

before_script:

- |

kubectl create secret -n "$KUBE_NAMESPACE" \

docker-registry regcred \

--docker-server="$CI_REGISTRY" \

--docker-username="${CI_DEPLOY_USER:-$CI_REGISTRY_USER}" \

--docker-password="${CI_DEPLOY_PASSWORD:-$CI_REGISTRY_PASSWORD}" \

--docker-email="$GITLAB_USER_EMAIL" \

-o yaml --dry-run | kubectl replace -n "$KUBE_NAMESPACE" --force -f -

script:

# creating the volume

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" kubernetes/volume.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# deploying API

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s~{{API_IMAGE}}~$API_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA~g" kubernetes/api.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# deploying SPA

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s~{{SPA_IMAGE}}~$SPA_DOCKER_IMAGE:$CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA~g" kubernetes/spa.yml | kubectl apply -f -

# updating ingress

- sed -e "s/{{NAMESPACE}}/$KUBE_NAMESPACE/g" -e "s/{{EXTERNAL_IP}}/$EXTERNAL_IP/g" kubernetes/ingress.yml | kubectl apply -f -

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Commit the changes and push to the repository

git add -A

git commit -m "Commit the code to deploy to GKE with GitLab"

git push

Go to http://EXTERNAL_IP.nip.io in the browser and make sure the application works. You may need to wait a few minutes for all the resources to be updated.

๐Ÿ’ก If the application does not open, but Deployments run without errors, especially if you get a 404 code when you go to the address above, it is likely that GCP assigned a different external IP to the newly created Ingress. It's easy to fix!

  • Find out the new IP address
    kubectl get ingress -n <namespace created by GitLab>

  • Change the value of the EXTERNAL_IP variable on GitLab.com accordingly.

  • Restart the pipeline in GitLab.

๐ŸŽ‰ Congratulations!

You first dockerized an application in React.js, then manually deployed it to Kubernetes, and finished by creating a CD pipeline deploying the app to Kubernetes using GitLab!

๐Ÿงน Don't forget to delete all the unnecessary resources created on Google Cloud Platform.